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  HTML Glossary  

Common Terms Related To HTML & The World Wide Web

In this glossary you´ll find a lot of terms associated with HTML, web design, website hosting and the world wide web in general, in alphabetical order. If you don“t find a certain term explained here, try or a search on Google.

Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix-like systems (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, Novell Netware and other platforms. Apache features highly configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases, and content negotiation. It is also supported by several graphical user interfaces (GUIs) which permit easier, more intuitive configuration of the server [1]. The Apache HTTP Server is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. more info.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), generally pronounced ['ęski], (ASS-key) is a character set and a character encoding based on the Roman alphabet as used in modern English and other Western European languages (see English alphabet). Common users of ASCII to represent text include computers, other communications equipment, and control devices that work with text.
ASCII defines the following printable characters, presented here in numerical order of their ASCII value - There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126:
!"#$%&'()*+,-./ 0123456789 :;<=>?@ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ [\]ˆ_` abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz {|}˜
see HTML Attributes
Block-level Elements
Block-level elements are HTML elements permitted within the BODY of a HTML document and may contain inline elements. When rendered visually in a web browser, block-level elements usually begin on a new line.
A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with HTML documents hosted by web servers or held in a file system. Popular browsers available for personal computers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Safari. A browser is the most commonly used kind of user agent. The largest networked collection of linked documents is known as the World Wide Web.
Document Type Definitions ( DTD )
A Document Type Definition (DTD for short) is a set of declarations that conform to a particular markup syntax and that describe a class, or "type", of SGML or XML documents, in terms of constraints on the structure of those documents.
A DTD specifies, in effect, the syntax of an "application" of SGML or XML, such as the derivative language HTML or XHTML. This syntax is usually a less general form of the syntax of SGML or XML.
In a DTD, the structure of a class of documents is described via element and attribute-list declarations. Element declarations name the allowable set of elements within the document, and specify whether and how declared elements and runs of character data may be contained within each element. Attribute-list declarations name the allowable set of attributes for each declared element, including the type of each attribute value, if not an explicit set of valid value(s).
A DTD may also declare default attribute values, named entities and their replacement text, and other constructs that are not always required to establish document structure, but that may affect the interpretation of some documents.
see HTML Elements
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a software standard for transferring computer files between machines with widely different operating systems. It belongs to the application layer of the Internet protocol suite. more info
In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. HTML is used to structure information -- denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists and so on -- and can be used to define the semantics of a document.
Originally defined by Tim Berners Lee and further developed by the IETF with a simplified SGML syntax, HTML is now an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). The HTML specification is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
HTML Attributes
In SGML-based markup languages like HTML and XML, an attribute is a parameter to an HTML element.
HTML Elements
In computing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document. More specifically, it is an SGML element that meets the requirements of one or more of the HTML Document Type Definitions (DTDs). HTML elements generally consist of three parts: a start tag marking the beginning of an element, some amount of content, and an end tag. Elements may represent headings, paragraphs, hypertext links, lists, embedded media, and a variety of other structures.
Many HTML elements include attributes in their start tags, defining desired behavior. The end tag is optional for many elements; in a minimal case, an empty element has no content or end tag. There are a few elements that are not part of any official DTDs, yet are supported by some browsers and used by some web pages. Such elements may be ignored or displayed improperly on browsers not supporting them.
Informally, HTML elements are sometimes referred to as "tags", though many prefer the term tag strictly in reference to the semantic structures delimiting the start and end of an element.
HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. The original purpose was to provide a way to publish and receive HTML pages.
Development of HTTP was co-ordinated by the World Wide Web Consortium and working groups of the Internet Engineering Task Force, culminating in the publication of a series of RFCs, most notably RFC 2616, which defines HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use today. more info
In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), "branch or perform on request." The most frequently discussed form of hypertext document contains automated cross-references to other documents called hyperlinks. Selecting a hyperlink causes the computer to display the linked document within a very short period of time. more info
Inline Elements
Inline elements usually appear within block-level elements in HTML documents. They may contain text and other inline elements and when rendered visually in a web browser, they do not start on a new line.
Markup Language
A markup language combines text and extra information about the text. The extra information, for example about the text's structure or presentation, is expressed using markup, which is intermingled with the primary text. The best-known markup language in modern use is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), one of the foundations of the World Wide Web. Historically, markup was (and is) used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.
In computing, a server is:
1. A computer software application that carries out some task (i.e. provides a service) on behalf of yet another piece of software called a client. In the case of the Web: An example of a server is the Apache web server, and an example of a client is the Mozilla web browser or the Internet Explorer web browser. Other server (and client) software exists for other services such as e-mail, printing, remote login, and even displaying graphical output. This is usually divided into file serving, allowing users to store and access files on a common computer; and application serving, where the software runs a computer program to carry out some task for the users. This is the original meaning of the term. Web, mail, and database servers are what most people access when using the Internet.
2. Over the years, the term has been misinterpreted (but in common usage now) to also mean the physical computer on which the server software runs. Software ultimately requires computer hardware to run, and originally server software would be run on a large powerful computer such as a mainframe computer or minicomputer. These have largely been replaced by computers built using a more robust version of the microprocessor technology than is used in personal computers, and the term "server" was adopted to describe microprocessor-based machines designed for this purpose. In a general sense, "server" machines have high-capacity (and sometimes redundant) power supplies, a motherboard built for durability in 24x7 operations, large quantities of ECC RAM, and fast I/O subsystems employing technologies such as SCSI, RAID, and PCI-X or PCI Express. It is important to note, however, that computers referred to as "servers" do not necessarily run any server software, nor is it required that server software only be run on these types of computers.
Also see Web Server
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. SGML is a descendant of IBM's Generalized Markup Language (GML), developed in the 1960s by Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie (whose surname initials also happen to be GML). SGML should not be confused with the Geography Markup Language (GML) developed by the Open GIS Consortium; cf, or the Game Maker scripting language, GML. more info
A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as 'earl'), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). First created by Tim Berners-Lee for use on the World Wide Web, the currently used forms are detailed by Internet standard RFC 1738.
Web Browser
See Browser
Web Server
The term web server can mean one of two things:
1. a computer responsible for serving web pages, mostly HTML documents, via the HTTP protocol to clients, mostly web browsers;
2. a software program that is working as a daemon serving web documents.
Also see Server.
World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C )
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium where member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop standards for the World Wide Web. W3C's mission is: "To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web". W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software, and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web. The Consortium is headed by Tim Berners-Lee, the original creator of the URL (Uniform Resource Locator), HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language) specifications, the principal technologies that form the basis of the Web. more info
The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages. It is a simplified subset of SGML, capable of describing many different kinds of data. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet. Languages based on XML (for example, RDF, RSS, MathML, XHTML and SVG) are defined in a formal way, allowing programs to modify and validate documents in these languages without prior knowledge of their form. more info


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